Artificial lighting should only be used where it is really necessary. The use of artificial light in the open countryside fragments habitats and negatively impacts the nocturnal landscape over long distances. The preservation of interconnected dark areas is of particular importance.
Vegetation and water bodies
Bodies of water, sensitive transitional biotopes such as riparian areas and wetland habitats are home to numerous endangered species. Trees, shrubs and meadows are habitats for animals and places where birds breed and sleep.
In order to minimise the impacts of artificial light on plants and animals and their habitats, vegetation and water bodies should not be illuminated.
Urban and residential areas:
Water bodies, parks with mature trees and green areas are habitats for nocturnal animals in the built-up area. In such locations, the environmentally friendly use of light is particularly important.
Suitable lighting installations in the entire residential area reduce sky glow and the impacts of light immissions or glare on residents.
Margins of residential areas:
The transitional zones between town and country should have much lower levels of illumination than the main urban areas. Eco-friendly lighting is particularly important where the adjoining land offers habitats in the form of rough grassland, forest margins, hedges, wetlands or water bodies.
As the urban margins are so easily reached, they are also important for people to enjoy the fascination of the sky at night. Illuminance should be reduced to levels comparable with a full moon.
Concentrations of light in the open country are usually caused by illuminated buildings like castles and churches as well as industrial plant like sewage farms and power plants and tourist facilities such as ski slopes and cable-car stations.
The lighting used for such areas and buildings has negative impacts on habitats and their species and on the visibility over a wide area of the stars in the night sky. Lighting should accordingly be avoided or limited.