Margins of residential areas:
The transitional zones between town and country should have much lower levels of illumination than the main urban areas. Eco-friendly lighting is particularly important where the adjoining land offers habitats in the form of rough grassland, forest margins, hedges, wetlands or water bodies.
As the urban margins are so easily reached, they are also important for people to enjoy the fascination of the sky at night. Illuminance should be reduced to levels comparable with a full moon.