Roads, footpaths, cycle paths

Responsible lighting

Where it's done:

Roads, footpaths and cycle paths are linear elements. They dominate the landscape and fragment habitats - all the more so when they are illuminated at night. Outside the built-up area, no lighting should be provided for roads, footpaths and cycle paths.

Lighting design:

Proper illumination of the target area is important.

As soon as luminaires are obsolete, a lighting designer must be consulted as the lighting system will usually need to be completely replaced.

Switching the street lighting from high-pressure sodium lamps (left) to LEDs (right) in Innsbruck. The fully shielded LED luminaire mainly illuminates the target area.

Austrian standards for street lighting
ÖNORM O 1052
Types of luminaires
Lighting Check-up for Tyrolean Municipalities

[Translate to Englisch:] © Christoph Malin
[Translate to Englisch:] © Christoph Malin

Conversion of a street from high-pressure sodium lamps to LEDs in Innsbruck. The fully shielded LED light type illuminates v.a. on the usable area.

Night set back and intelligent control systems:

Lighting systems based on the industry codes and true lighting needs can be designed with the help of ÖNORM O 1055. The Austrian standard includes provisions for system set back during periods with little traffic. The use of intelligent control systems is also possible. With such sensor-controlled lighting, luminous intensity is reduced when there is no traffic. The sensors detect any road users and immediately switch to full power as required.

Energy consumption and potential for energy savings in public lighting systems
Carbon dioxide (CO2) and mercury emissions
 

© Hellenot
City of Lucerne - First public lighting with motion sensor

Light sources:

The use of warm white and amber LEDs is recommended.

Life cycle assessment of light sources

Intensity:

Cycle paths and footpaths are assigned to the general lighting class P. At slow speeds (5 to 40 kmh), normal traffic, no parked vehicles at the sides, and low ambient luminance, the requirements of lighting class P5 apply. They correspond to a minimum average horizontal illuminance of 3 lx (maintained illuminance) during operation until midnight.

© Christoph Malin
© Christoph Malin

Power outage in a Tyrolean municipality puts the stars back in the sky.

Buildings and objects

Floodlit buildings are often to be found in urban centres, where they make a major contribution to the sky glow over the city. But in rural areas, too, floodlighting is often used for historical buildings, including castles and churches, industrial buildings like power plants, and tourist facilities such as cable-car stations. Such lighting installations have major impacts over considerable distances on the natural nocturnal landscape and living creatures.

[Translate to Englisch:] © Christoph Malin
[Translate to Englisch:] © Stefanie Suchy

Responsible lighting

Where it's done:

According to ÖNORM O 1052, façade lighting is prohibited in legally defined areas as a nature protection measure. In the Tyrol, a permit under nature protection law is required for the installation of outdoor lighting systems.

The aim is to prevent lighting in exposed locations and on high buildings, as it can be fatal to migrating birds and bats. Migratory birds are on the move from mid-February to mid-May and from August to mid-November. Bats arrive in autumn (September) and move to their summer quarters in spring (March, April).

Buildings with bat roosts - at least the exits - are not to be illuminated during the breeding season from May to August. Bats are protected species and must not be disturbed or impaired by artificial light (TNSchG 2005 and TNSchVO 2006). This also applies within the built-up area.

Bats
Migratory birds
 

Lighting design:

Professional lighting design is required to ensure that the cone of light does not exceed the area to be illuminated. The luminaire should be positioned as close as possible to the façade, and the light should ideally be directed downwards.

With many listed buildings, changes to the façade are banned and no lighting fixtures may be mounted there. In such cases refined projection or masking strategies (or possibly very narrow-beam spots) can be used. With projector lighting, less than one percent of the light emitted misses the façade. Masking offers illumination in which approx. two percent of the light is lost.

Care should be taken not to illuminate reflective surfaces such as light-coloured walls, metallic surfaces or glass.

Interference from building floodlighting

© Illustration: Vandasye 2017
© Illustration: Vandasye 2017
Die dezente Beleuchtung von Innen lässt nicht nur prachtvolle Bleiglasfenster zur Geltung kommen, sondern vermindert Lichtverschmutzung maßgeblich!
Restrained lighting on the inside highlights beautiful stained glass windows and also significantly reduces light pollution!
© Christoph Malin

Night-time switch off:

In the open country and rural residential areas, night-time switch off pursuant to ÖNORM O 1052 should begin at 10 p.m. In urban areas switch off by midnight at the latest is desirable.

Regulations in France
Law in South Tyrol

© Thomas Sansone

© Thomas Sansone


Light sources:

The use of warm white and amber LEDs is recommended.

Intensity:

In dark areas, a low level of luminance on the façade or a low contrast between light and dark is sufficient to draw attention to the object. Average façade lighting with a luminance of less than 1 cd/m2 is recommended in the Life at Night project (see below). In areas of low ambient brightness, an average luminance of 0.2 cd/m2 is sufficient.

The objective of the Life+ project is to optimise the illumination of historical buildings in terms of energy efficiency and environmental friendliness.

Nature-friendlier lighting of objects of cultural heritage (churches) Recommendations, LIFE+ Life at Night project, in cooperation with the Slovenian National Commission for UNESCO
 

Sports and leisure facilities

Leisure activities and training sessions are increasingly being held during the hours of darkness. The lighting required for such purposes increases light immissions in both residential areas and the open countryside. This can have adverse effects on residents, endanger road users and cause problems due to unwanted light in the environment.

© Hellenot

Responsible lighting

Where it's done:

In the Tyrol, a permit under nature protection law is required for the installation of outdoor lighting systems.

Lighting design:

Professional lighting design is required to ensure that the cone of light does not exceed the target area.

© Illustration: Vandasye 2017
© Illustration: Vandasye 2017

The position paper on “Ski slope lighting” contains proposals from the Office of the Tyrolean Ombudsman for the Environment for the careful use of artificial light.
Positionspapier zur Beleuchtung von Schipisten

Austrian regulations for sports facility lighting
Interference from lighting systems for sports and leisure facilities

Night-time switch off:

In the open country and rural residential areas, night-time switch off pursuant to ÖNORM O 1052 should begin at 10 p.m. In urban areas switch off by 10 p.m. at the latest is desirable in the interest of local residents. 

For lifts and cable car stations in particular, illumination should be based on operating hours and a night-time switch off beginning at 10 p.m.

© Christoph Malin


Light sources:

The use of warm white and amber LEDs is recommended.

For economic reasons, metal halide lamps with high levels of illuminance are often used for sports facilities such as football grounds. These light sources are viewed critically as they have significant proportions of light in the short-wave and ultraviolet range and the latter can have negative impacts on health and the environment.

If metal halide lamps are used nevertheless, controllers must be fitted to reduce stray light as well as suitable filters. According to ÖNORM O 1052, radiance for wavelengths shorter than 440 nm must be limited to a maximum of 15 percent of the total radiance of the light source.

UV-Filter für Metallhalogendampflampen nach ÖNORM 1052 – Recherche und Gegenüberstellung

Intensity:

The level of illumination (lux, lx) should be selected on the basis of true need. Less light is required for training sessions, for example.

Average horizontal illuminance on ski slopes:
Recreational skiing Ö̈NORM EN 12193 20 lx; ÖISS Lighting Guide 30 lx
Competition skiing ÖNORM EN 12193 100 lx; ÖISS Lighting Guide 300 lx

Average horizontal illuminance on football pitches:
Training (local) ÖNORM EN 12193 75 lx; ÖISS Lighting Guide 80 lx
Competition (regional) ÖNORM EN 12193 200 lx; ÖISS Lighting Guide 120-150 lx

Construction sites, commercial and industrial premises

Responsible lighting

Night-time switch off:

Outside of working and operating hours, the grounds should not be illuminated and outdoor advertising and effect lighting should be switched off.

Large window areas illuminated from inside should be darkened with the help of blinds in accordance with ÖNORM O 1052.

Regulations in France
Law in South Tyrol

Light sources:

The use of warm white and amber LEDs is recommended.

Intensity:

Importance should be attached to illuminance based on true needs for the visual tasks involved.

© Hellenot

Illuminated advertising

Light captures people’s attention. That makes it ideal for the purposes of the advertising industry. In order to catch the eye, advertising installations are becoming bigger and brighter. Increasing use is also being made of moving images.

Intensive shop and display lighting contributes to light glow in urban areas. In the context of the “Light over Vienna” project, it was calculated that total light glow can be attributed in equal measure to shop lighting, façade lighting and street lighting.

© Stefanie Suchy
© Sebastian Stoll

Responsible lighting

Where it's done:

In accordance with ÖNORM O 1052, illuminated advertising is not permitted in legally defined areas for reasons of nature protection. Luminous or illuminated advertising systems should not be used in the open country, either. In the Tyrol, a permit under nature protection law is required for illuminated advertising installations.

Lighting design:

In principle, care should be taken to keep the area as small as possible and to use light characters on a dark background. The height of illuminated advertising installations should also be reduced becasue of the long-distance effects.

Advertising hoardings should be illuminated top-down, and the light cone should remain within the area of the advertisement.

© Illustration: Vandasye 2017
© Illustration: Vandasye 2017

Illuminated advertising installations that are in compliance with the limit values and other legal provisions can still be expected to cause a certain amount of glare and distraction for road users.

Highway Rules and Regulations and the Road Traffic Act
Interference from illuminated advertising

Night-time switch off:

Lighting for shop windows and logos should be based on business hours or switched off at 10 p.m.

Regulations in France
Law in South Tyrol
 

Light sources:

The use of warm white and amber LEDs is recommended.

Intensity:

Low-brightness screens or logos must be used. Luminance on illuminated advertising surfaces should also be kept as low as possible. ÖNORM O 1052 specifies a maximum luminance of 250 cd/m2 for rural residential areas.

© Sophie Höllering

Effect lighting

Light architecture is a discipline in its own right. It is used to create lighting spaces where people like to be, especially in urban areas. In keeping with the saying “Darkness is what makes light visible”, the intelligent use of artificial lighting can make a positive contribution to the aesthetics and atmosphere of a city.

But the excessive use of artificial light can quickly produce the opposite effect and lead to a state of unrest. The distinction between effect lighting and illuminated advertising is blurred, as they are both meant to attract attention.

© Rainer Eisendle
© Stefanie Suchy


Responsible lighting

Where it's done:

In accordance with ÖNORM O 1052, illuminated advertising is not permitted in legally defined areas for reasons of nature protection. Exaggerated effect lighting (such as light shows) should not be used in the open countryside, rural residential areas or urban areas except for short and defined periods.

Lighting design:

A nuanced approach and planning based on knowledge and experience are essential for optimum effects with light from an aesthetic point of view.

© Illustration: Vandasye 2017
© Illustration: Vandasye 2017

According to ÖNORM O 1052 artificial light that is beamed directly upwards should be avoided. Skybeamers, recessed ground spotlights and decorative lights cause high levels of light pollution and should not be used.

© Stefanie Suchy

© Götz Nordmeyer
Skybeamer

The Skybeamer position paper prepared by the Office of the Tyrolean Ombudsman for the Environment provides specific information on these searchlights.

Positionspapier Skybeamer
Skybeamers as a bird trap

Richtlinien und Vorschriften für das Straßenwesen und Straßenverkehrsordnung
Störung durch Effektbeleuchtung
Energie- und kostenintensive Weihnachtsbeleuchtung

Home and garden

Responsible lighting

Where it's done:

Near-natural private gardens are retreats for many species of animals in residential areas. In order not to disturb day-active species when they are resting, and also to preserve the garden as a habitat for nocturnal species, artificial or decorative lighting should not be used.

© Stefanie Suchy

Night-time switch off:

Targeted entrance lighting should be operated with properly adjusted proximity switches.

Light sources:

The use of low power light sources with a warm colour temperature is recommended. Warm white or amber LEDs are ideal, as they save energy and protect nocturnal insects. In other words, LEDs may also attract fewer “nasty” insects!

Lighting design:

Lighting in the garden, on the terrace or outside the front door should only be used where and when it is really needed. Targeted light should be limited to the area to be illuminated.

Out of consideration for other people living in the area, too, façade and effect lighting and decorative lighting installations should not be used.

Outdoor lighting alone has no deterrent effect on burglars
Energy and cost-intensive Christmas illuminations
Lassen wir die Nacht im Garten, Wiener Umweltanwaltschaft und Umweltberatung​​​​​

© Illustration: Vandasye 2017
© Illustration: Vandasye 2017